Cannabinoids and Terpenes in CBD


The whole-flower CBD at Vermont Hemp Health is created from the high-quality hemp strains that are rich in terpenes. We ensure that our whole-flower CBD contains the highest terpene content. Terpenes are found in the resin that coats the buds of the cannabis flower. Over three quarters of other CBD products are made from entire, industrial hemp plants. Industrial hemp is known to contain very low amounts of resin and an average CBD content of 3%, as opposed to our whole-flower CBD content which ranges from 15-20%. Because we use only the whole-flower to create our superior CBD, we concentrate on the most potent part of the hemp plant rich in the trichomes and resin that contain cannabinoids and terpenes. These synergize with CBD to create an “entourage effect.” By contrast, 70% of CBD products on the market today are derived from entire industrial hemp plants – as a result, the vast majority of CBD companies create products that are derived from hemp stalks, leaves, stems, and seeds. These parts of the hemp plant have the lowest quality trichomes, containing the lowest quality CBD molecules. The “bulbous” trichomes found on cannabis stalks and leaves contains no resin and none of the terpenes. Terpenes play a crucial role in facilitating the amazing healing properties and the “entourage effect”.


Like many terpenes, myrcene makes CBD more effective, and has remarkable physical and psychological benefits. Myrcene is a crucial terpene for pain relief and inflammation management. This terpene reduces inflammation by targeting the inflamed area of the body and improving blood circulation in the problem area to reduce inflammation. Simultaneously, it lessens the severity of inflammation-related pain. Myrcene is also effective for pain relief, and reduces painful sensations by modulating pain signals in the central nervous system. By this mechanism of action, myrcene reduces and inhibits the feeling of pain by calming the body’s responses to pain itself. Myrcene also contributes major psychological benefits to our whole-flower CBD. It inhibits tension and anxiety to calm the body and mind. Researchers also report that myrcene benefits sleep and reduces anxiety. This makes our myrcene-rich CBD an excellent choice for customers who suffer from anxiety, stress, sleeping problems, and physical symptoms such as pain and inflammation.

Caryophyllene & B-Caryophyllene

Caryophyllene also carries remarkable benefits for reducing pain and inflammation. This terpene is thought to inhibit inflammation and pain by strengthening the body’s defenses against these forms of discomfort. Moreover, it is thought to relieve and facilitate recovery from various forms of physical and psychological stress. Caryophyllene is also reported to enhance mood, promote emotional stability, and contribute to overall mental wellness. Caryophyllene produces these benefits through a unique mechanism of action in its interaction with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Caryophyllene is one of the only terpenes known to act on the CB2 receptor, the cannabinoid receptor responsible for the management of emotions. Researchers believe that through its interactions with the CB2 receptor, caryophyllene targets the CB2 receptor to promote emotional stability. In doing so, caryophyllene targets the nucleus of negative emotions to reduce anxiety, relieve stress, improve mood, and contribute to an overall sense of emotional well-being. In addition, several studies have suggested that caryophyllene has long term cognitive benefits.


Pinene has two main isomers, alpha pinene (a-pinene) and beta-pinene (b-pinene). Pinene is a dominant terpene in our Cherry Wine CBD products – that is characteristically uplifting and energetic impacts. This terpene improves mood, increases energy, promotes focus, improves stamina, and contributes to cognitive performance and functionality. Researchers also suggest that pinene enhances cognition helping individuals retain the short-term memories that are essential to learning. This makes our pinene-rich strains such as Cherry Wine CBD excellent for those who prefer to take CBD during the day to deliver these benefits. These benefits can exponentially improve our ability to function at our best throughout the day.


Limonene is another uplifting, energy-promoting terpene that is thought to have significant psychological benefits. Studies report that this terpene seems to elevate mood and relieve stress through its interaction with serotonin receptors in the brain. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that contributes to feelings of happiness and well-being. Serotonin modulates cognition, memory, and a variety of other physiological processes. By stabilizing and balancing serotonin levels, pinene improves these functions and may contribute to overall cognitive ability. Through its interaction with the serotonin receptors in the central nervous system, limonene enhances mood, and has the potential to inhibit feelings of depression. Due to its high limonene content, our whole-flower CBD may be beneficial for those looking to improve mental health. Studies suggest that limonene has the potential to benefit those suffering from mental health conditions such as anxiety or depression. One particular study noted that limonene produced benefits for anxiety and depression that were comparable with the effects of Valium, which is a prescription benzodiazepine drug commonly prescribed for these conditions. Moreover, limonene carries none of the unwanted side effects or addictive properties associated with such medications.1 Limonene has a remarkable capacity to reduce stress, and synthesizes with CBD to target the area of the central nervous system responsible for the body’s stress response. By regulating this system, it is thought to soothe the body’s reaction to stress and restore the psychological balance that stress can disrupt. Limonene has antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties, and some report that it relieves heartburn and acid reflux. It is also thought to strengthen the immune system. Researchers suggest that it does so by stimulating immune system cells to strengthen the body’s defenses against foreign agents. Limonene is also thought to decrease sensitivity to pain, and has significant analgesic benefits. Limonene promotes pain relief by modulating neuropathic pain signaling between the body and the central nervous system. Neuropathic pain is related to tissue and nerve damage, making our whole-flower CBD rich in limonene an excellent wellness supplement for those suffering from neuropathic pain conditions. In doing so, it regulates our response to pain and reduces the severity of painful sensations. Limonene is an anti-inflammatory terpene that has been reported to reduce, prevent, and manage inflammation. Limonene is especially effective at reducing inflammation in the digestive tract, and aids healthy digestion. Limonene has been the subject of various clinical trials, and has been suggested to carry various other benefits. Some studies suggest that limonene boosts metabolism and contributes to physical health. Other researchers have suggested that limonene lowers the level of fat in the body at the cellular level, and can help prevent nausea and vomiting.


Humulene is produced by the cannabis plant as an antifungal, antibiotic and antibacterial agent. It works with other terpenes to contribute to the plant’s defenses against environmental threats. Humulene is thought to work to a similar effect in the human body. In addition, it contains significant therapeutic benefits for physical and psychological wellness. Humulene has anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and pain relieving properties. It is also known for its ability to promote a healthy appetite. Humulene has been shown to be effective in preventing bacteria that cause infection and disease. This terpene has anti-inflammatory properties that are amplified when it is combined with its accompanying, naturally-occurring fellow terpenes – as in our whole -flower CBD products. Humulene is also a pharmacokinetic, meaning that humulene impacts the bioavailability of other substances in the body. Many medicines are more effective when they are in the presence of this facilitating compound.


Linalool is naturally present in hemp and lavender. This terpene has been utilized for centuries in traditional medicine practices and is known for its calming characteristics. Linalool has a variety of therapeutic benefits for the mind and body. Studies show that linalool is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that may decrease pain levels. It pairs with the chemical acetate to reduce inflammation and inflammation-related discomfort. Linalool relieves pain by altering neuropathic responses and pain signals transmitted from the source of pain in the body to the region of the central nervous system responsible for reacting with the sensation. Linalool is also linked to the production of vitamin E, which supports bodily health. Linalool also has psychological benefits, promoting relaxation in the body and mind. It has been reported to enhance mood and lower anxiety levels. The stress-relieving benefits of linalool contribute to its utility as an agent for mental health, as well as, bodily wellness. Like many terpenes, linalool is thought to strengthen the body’s immune system and its defenses against stress.


Bisabolol has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties, and it may contribute to healthy skin. It is an anti-irritant, which reduces bodily discomfort through modulating the body’s response to and defenses against irritation. By a similar mechanism of action, bisabolol may supplement pain management. Given these benefits, bisabolol is frequently used by cosmetic companies in skin products. Like many other terpenes in Vermont Hemp Health’s whole-flower CBD, bisabolol has many benefits as an antioxidant.


Eucalyptol can be found in the Australian eucalyptus tree, and also occurs in cardamom, rosemary, and sage leaves. This terpene is often used in balms for sore joints and muscles, and has a cooling effect when applied topically. Eucalyptol fights inflammation and has the ability to alleviate pain, aches, and soreness. It is also thought to have antibacterial properties and is thought to act as a bronchodilator. Some studies and reports suggest that eucalyptol promotes healthy mental function and clarity, while others suggest it can balance sleeping patterns. Ongoing research continues to investigate eucalyptol’s utility in promoting healthy cognition.


Phytocannabinoids are cannabinoids synthesized by plants when they are exposed to heat and light under natural growing conditions. CBD can only manifest its full therapeutic potential when it is in the presence of other cannabinoids such as CBN, CBG, CBC, CBDV, CBDA, and non-psychoactive, trace amounts of less than 0.3% THC. Below, we provide an overview of each cannabinoid found in Vermont Hemp Health Whole Flower CBD. These cannabinoids potentiate CBD while contributing their own, distinctive benefits to the overall impact of our CBD products.


CBD (cannabidiol) has been widely studied and reported to carry remarkable therapeutic benefits for numerous conditions and symptoms to individuals with a diverse variety of health and wellness goals. Whole-flower contain CBD as well as “minor” cannabinoids and terpenes that form the “entourage compounds” necessary to produce an “entourage effect.” Studies show that whole flower CBD fluid proves therapeutically superior to other forms of CBD, including isolate, broad spectrum, and full spectrum products derived from the whole-plant. Nonetheless, CBD is a phytocannabinoid with remarkable potential to improve individuals’ quality of life, and it has served this purpose for countless consumers worldwide. Likewise, CBD research has proliferated in recent decades in response to the surprisingly powerful benefits that have been attributed to regular CBD consumption, and highly promising findings have begun to unfurl as research on CBD’s utility for treating a variety of physical and mental health conditions proliferates. CBD’s benefits have been comprehensively documented anecdotally and explored through scientific research, and it would be nearly impossible to capture every benefit that CBD can provide within the scope of this article. Anyone familiar with the CBD industry has likely seen ever-growing lists of the symptoms it is thought to treat, and the benefits it is believed to produce, and these effects are still being explored and scientifically validated. Nonetheless, CBD is widely celebrated and suggested by years of research to work as an aid to the management of pain, muscle tension, mental wellness, sleep regulation, and other areas of an individual’s lifestyle crucial to overall well-being. In general, studies and anecdotal evidence have proven that CBD has remarkable potential to improve lives for patients of all kinds seeking a healthier, happier, and more balanced lifestyle. CBD exerts its effects through its interaction with the endocannabinoid system, a network of cannabinoid receptors and neurotransmitters that spreads throughout the body, brain, central nervous system, and immune system. The endocannabinoid system impacts our mood, immune system, appetite, memory, and pain levels. Many of our important bodily functions operate through this system. Therefore a healthy endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in overall health. CBD works symbiotically with our bodies and minds. Some have reported that CBD had up to fourteen mechanisms of action in the central nervous system through its interaction with the ECS. Cannabinoids bind with cannabinoid receptors in the body and brain to modulate action in numerous places and processes throughout the body. The intended result is a multifaceted healing effect with a wide scope of potential benefits. The endocannabinoid system works differently in each region of the body and brain that it impacts through its interaction with the ECS. Ultimately, CBD promotes wellness by establishing homeostasis, a state of biological equilibrium whose maintenance is modulated by the ECS. Of course, CBD users report that CBD introduces balance and equanimity into many elements of everyday life in the short and long term. As the CBD industry grows, researchers continue to publish studies on its potential medicinal properties to aid in the achievement of various health and wellness goals. Part of the reason why the list of CBD’s benefits is so expansive is because, as aforementioned, it interacts with the endocannabinoid system, the body’s “master regulatory system” that plays an integral role in regulating the vast majority of fundamental functions and processes that affect the skin, internal organs, peripheral tissues, and central nervous system. A vast network of cannabinoid receptors spreads throughout the human body, and the ECS produces some of its own cannabinoids to bind with those receptors and facilitate a healthy endocannabinoid system. However, more often than not, our cannabinoid levels are depleted, which is why introducing cannabinoids into our system – specifically, through the use of cannabis products – produces such significant results. When endocannabinoid levels are low, many physiological processes and systems are deregulated and we transition into a state of imbalance. Homeostasis is lost, and this has serious impacts on our physical and psychological experience of everyday life – on our basic bodily functions, state of mind, and the basic processes that are essential to human functioning such as sleep (and many, many more). When we replenish our endocannabinoid levels by supplementing our ECS with cannabinoids, those processes are brought back to baseline to function normally, and homeostasis is achieved. This is why CBD is so important for creating balance in one’s lifestyle, body, mind, and wellness routine. Homeostasis is a state of biological balance and stability among a variety of external shifts and stressors, and it can be recovered or sustained by using CBD to maintain a healthy ECS. CBD also promotes “balance” in the figurative sense of the term. Many find that it stabilizes certain aspects of their mental and physical wellness while making everyday life run more smoothly, unhindered by the psychological and physical factors that can sometimes get in the way of our performance and general well-being. The benefits and potential uses of CBD have been widely documented in countless studies, and enforced by users’ accounts of changed lives and symptom relief for a variety of ailments and wellness routines. Researchers and anecdotal evidence suggest that CBD may aid in the management of pain, inflammation, irritation, and other sources of discomfort. In addition, CBD is a more powerful than vitamin C or vitamin E. Many users and researchers report that CBD seems to enhance mood and lower anxiety levels. CBD benefits mental wellness by triggering the release of hormones responsible for positive feelings. This mechanism of action paired with its calming effects can promote relaxation and a sense of well-being.

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)

Our whole-flower CBD products contain legal, non-psychoactive trace amounts of less than 0.3% THC. It is important to distinguish hemp from marijuana, two often confused but completely different varieties of the cannabis plant. CBD is derived from hemp, which has high levels of CBD and less than 0.3% THC. Marijuana, on the other hand, contains high levels of THC and only trace amounts of CBD. THC is the cannabinoid responsible for producing a “high” when it is present at over 0.3%. Because our products are made from hemp rather than marijuana, and have less than 0.3% THC, they will not produce any type of “high.” With that said, even though the 0.3% THC content of our products is non-psychoactive, these trace amounts of THC are still crucial to unlocking the full range of benefits that CBD can provide. While none of the cannabinoids in our whole flower CBD are psychoactive, they nonetheless play a crucial role in the potency, effectiveness, and therapeutic benefits of our CBD products. At Vermont Hemp Health, we extract CBD from the hemp plant, not the marijuana plant: these are two distinct and very different subtypes of the cannabis plant. The marijuana plant has high levels of THC and CBD, while the hemp plant has non-psychoactive level of THC (.03%) and high levels of CBD. Yet like its accompanying cannabinoids and terpenes in hemp, THC in small amounts has its own contributions to offer to our whole flower CBD. Like all of the other “minor” cannabinoids in our whole flower CBD, this trace amount of CBD produces significant benefits without creating any mind-altering effects. CBD products contain a non-psychoactive amount of THC at less than 0.03%. THC is thought to decrease pain and reduce vomiting and nausea. It is thought to aid sleep, and to stimulate the appetite. It interacts with the same receptors that release the hormone ghrelin, which is known to stimulate hunger. THC is suggested to aid the management of pain and related side effects. It relaxes the muscles and promotes relaxation. Like many cannabinoids and terpenes, THC has anti-inflammatory properties. THC exerts its mechanism of action by activating the CB1 receptor in the endocannabinoid system. This has been theorized to promote “long term potentiation”: in neuroscience, this term connotes the strengthening of synapses based on recent levels of activity, and THC is thought to stimulate this synaptic activity to produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons in the brain. In short, this is the process that enhances long-term memories and the process of learning and retaining skills and information. Though research on this property of THC is underway, this interesting benefit may account for the enhanced creativity and reported improvement of learning interest and ability from users of whole-flower CBD or THC. Anecdotal evidence suggests that for some consumers, THC may carry benefits for mental wellness in a variety of forms. All of these benefits are present when THC is present in trace amounts of no more than .3%, while the “high” associated with marijuana is completely absent. Although the THC content of our CBD products is far too low to produce any kind of “high,” these trace amounts of less than 0.3% THC still play an essential role in the “entourage effect,” and make major contributions to the potency of our CBD products. Like other cannabinoids and terpenes, THC strengthens CBD and makes it work more effectively. Thus even in small concentrations, THC is a crucial component of the overall “entourage effect” that our whole flower products provide.

CBG (Cannabigerol)

CBG interacts with the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the endocannabinoid system. This cannabinoid is thought to boost anandamide, an endocannabinoid that increases dopamine levels. Dopamine regulates appetite, sleep, and mood. Researchers have hypothesized that CBG is a GABA reuptake inhibitor. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, an active location of the ECS and many of the cannabinoid receptors to which compounds such as CBG bind to exert their effects. A GABA reuptake inhibitor promotes healthy levels of GABA in the central nervous system while preventing its withdrawal (or “reuptake”). Healthy GABA levels are crucial to the management of stress and anxiety. CBG and other GABA reuptake inhibitors maintain healthy, baseline levels of GABA in the central nervous system, where GABA reduces the excitability in the nervous system responsible for feelings of anxiety, stress, and other forms of psychological tension. CBG is also hypothesized to work to a similar effect in sustaining healthy levels of serotonin in the central nervous system. Serotonin contributes to feelings of happiness and well-being, though it also has complex biological functions involved in the modulation of cognition, the sensation of reward, learning, memory, and other physiological processes related to cognition and the physiology of emotion. It is also thought to contribute to healthy sleep and appetite. CBG binds with the CB1 receptor, an important region of the ECS that impacts the central nervous system. CBG is thought to benefit cognitive health and reduce pressure or discomfort behind the eyes. The endocannabinoid system is significantly involved in the eye area, an important site for many influential cannabinoid receptors. CBG stimulates appetite as well. CBG strengthens the immune system, and some researchers suggest that it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. CBG is thought to aid or alleviate inflammation and pain. It relaxes muscle tensions and related discomfort. Some believe that CBG stimulates cell growth in important regions of the body where cell rejuvenation is needed over time as the body begins to age.

CBC (Cannabichromene)

Cannabichromene (CBC) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid with a range of therapeutic properties. CBC is thought to aid the management of pain and inflammation. It may contribute to healthy digestion, and some studies suggest that CBC has antibacterial or antifungal properties. Other studies suggest that CBC may promote cognitive health. CBC is thought to react with the TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptors, channels of communication that carry neuropathic pain signals from the body to the central nervous system: these communicative channels are the link between the source of discomfort in the body and the sensation of pain that the brain emits as a response. Since its interaction with these receptors, CBC is thought to work as a multichannel conduit for pain management. Studies suggest that CBC may promote long-term cognitive health as a supplement to one’s wellness routine. Like the majority of compounds in hemp, it aids in pain and inflammation management, and some studies have found that it is more effective than over-the-counter pain relievers (NSAIDs) that produce undesirable side effects. It also plays a role in the modulation of neuropathic pain. CBC exerts its action on a cellular level to promote cognitive health and homeostasis. CBC has also been studied as a treatment for acne, preventing breakouts from the inside out by lowering levels of acne-inducing serums and healing acne that has already emerged. Some studies suggest that CBC enhances mood when consumed in conjunction with CBD and non-psychoactive traces of THC — as in Vermont Hemp Health’s whole flower formula.

CBN (Cannabinol)

Cannabinol (CBN) has a variety of therapeutic properties that become especially powerful in the presence of other cannabinoids and terpenes. It thrives as an integral component of the “entourage effect.” CBN interacts with the CB1 and TRPV2 receptors, the latter of which regulates several systems in the body. Through this mechanism of action, CBN is thought to reduce pain and inflammation, while also promoting healthy skin and reducing discomfort on the topical level. It relaxes the muscles and attendant symptoms of discomfort or tension, and can supplement physical health and wellness regimens. CBN boosts anandamide, an endocannabinoid that increases dopamine levels and controls sleep, mood and appetite. Accordingly, CBN is known for its efficacy in modulating sleep and aiding sleep management. Studies have found that CBN prolongs the duration of deep sleep while preventing sleep disturbance or interferences, helping users to fall and stay asleep. CBN is thought to decrease stress levels and relax muscle tensions. These benefits are valuable in and of themselves, and contribute to CBN’s utility as a sleep aid. CBN is thought to decrease pain by activating pain-signaling networks through its interaction with the ECS. These areas of the ECS modulate the spread of painful sensations throughout the body. CBN carries anti-inflammatory combined with hypothermic properties that have captured the interest of researchers searching for supplements to aid in the management and treatment of burns

CBDV (Cannabidivarin)

CBDV has a unique mechanism of action that suggests multifaceted healing benefits. Combined with CBD, CBDV works in the TRPV1 channel, also known as the capsaicin receptor, part of a family of channels involved in the nerve cell excitability. By desensitizing these channels and modulating the signals that they communicate, CBDV and CBD suppress upregulation in this area, which can cause imbalance or unpleasant symptoms due to overstimulation of the nerves that these channels encompass. Thus, CBDV and CBD work together to decrease sensitivity to the signals transmitted between excitable nerve cells. Combined with CBD, CBDV desensitizes this channel and reduces the frequency and severity of conditions or symptoms related to the overexcitability and oversensitivity of cells in this region. CBDV desensitizes the nervous and synaptic responses that cause oversensitivity to nausea, pain, inflammation, tension, emotional imbalance, and other unpleasant symptoms or sources of discomfort. As a result, CBDV is thought to suppress the harmful effects of nervous and synaptic excitability and oversensitivity to signals transmitted through the TRPV1 channel that CBDV and CBD desensitize. CBDV is also thought to modulate appetite and assuage internal discomfort caused by inflammation.

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